When will the sun go out?
Everything is transient, and according to decades of mathematical and astronomical models, the sun will not last forever; But when exactly does the sun end its life? Although the final death of our average planet will occur in the trillions next year, in the current phase, the melting of hydrogen nuclei to the sun will allow energy to be released and prevent the star from collapsing. Paula Testa“Astrophysicists at the Harvard College Astrophysics and Observatory say:
The lifespan of the sun is less than 5 billion years. In fact, the sun can be considered a middle-aged star with a full lifespan of 10 billion years.
After the sun burns much of its hydrogen inside its nucleus, it enters the next phase, the red giant. This stage will occur exactly in the next 5 billion years. In the red giant stage, the sun no longer emits heat through the melting of the nucleus, and its nucleus becomes unstable and shrinks. Meanwhile, the outer part of the sun, which still has hydrogen, expands and glows red. This expansion gradually causes the sun’s neighboring planets, Mercury and Venus, to be swallowed up. Eventually, the sun reaches a very close distance from the earth; So that solar winds destroy the earth’s magnetic field and atmosphere.
Of course, this would be bad news for surviving life on planet Earth; According to the Geophysical Research Letters, even if the sun’s brightness increased by 10 percent, the entire Earth’s oceans would evaporate within one to one and a half billion years. Within millions of years of its initial expansion, the sun will also destroy rocky remnants of the earth.
In the next stage and before the collapse of its nucleus, the sun begins to melt helium and produce carbon and oxygen. The outer layer then collapses, leaving an attractive star nebula, which is a hot shell of plasma. The sun’s outer layers then condense, leaving the bodies of Earth-sized stars called white dwarfs. The nebula remains only 10,000 years old, which on a cosmic scale is the only spectacular sight.
From this point on, the sun continues to cool for trillions of years until it becomes a completely silent, beamless object. To achieve this, scientists needed to calculate the emitted energy for the sun and all the stars based on relative mass, which was difficult before calculating solar fusion based on solar mass. The test adds:
Research on the death of the sun is relatively new; Because an integral part of our understanding of a star’s mechanism comes from understanding its reactions and melting its core. Before the 1930s, one of the main ideas of the mechanism of stars was that their energy came from gravitational energy.
Scientists and astrophysicists were able to arrive at more complete models by gaining a better understanding of fusion. The test states:
Astronomers and astrophysicists have been able to arrive at a model for the evolution of stars by combining large amounts of different information from stars. Thus, we came to a more accurate guess about solar longevity.
At present, the Sun is 6.4 to 7.4 billion years old, which is about the same age as the oldest stellar meteorites that formed from the same solar nebula. The solar nebula is a rotating disk of gas and dust that formed the sun and other planets in our solar system. Thanks to modern tools, scientists have come to a better understanding of sunlight and its eventual end.