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The secret of a long coward; Why do some people suffer from Covid 19 for so long?

One of the many mysteries about Covid is that who is most susceptible to it? Do some people experience symptoms more than others that may appear or persist for months after the coronavirus infection is gone?

A team of researchers has now identified four risk factors that can be used to predict whether people will develop long-term cavitation; A condition in which a person experiences a variety of symptoms for weeks or months after the onset of the initial Covid 19 infection.

Risk factors include high levels of the genetic material SARS Cov2 (causative virus 19) in the blood early in infection, active infection with a different pathogen called Epstein-Barr virus (EBV); Specific autoantibodies or immune molecules that target the body’s proteins instead of targeting viruses or bacteria, and a previous diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, the most common form of diabetes in which the body’s cells are resistant to insulin.

In a study published in the January 24 issue of the journal TB, the researchers noted these risk factors, most of which can be identified when a person first develops Covid 19; As a result, prompt treatments are more likely to prevent some cases of long-term coronary artery disease.

However, the new study is still a starting point. یاپنگ سو“Researchers need to do more research to find out how these risk factors cause long-term cavitation,” said lead author and researcher at the Institute for Biological Systems in Seattle. Also, can these early signals predict which specific symptoms may remain with the patient four, eight, or 12 months after infection?

Understanding the risk factors of long coed

In a new study, a research team monitored nearly 210 Covid 19 patients for approximately two to three months after diagnosis. About 70% of these patients were hospitalized due to Covid 19. The aim of this study was to identify common features among patients who developed long-term or post-Covid post-Cavid 19 recurrences; A medical term that refers to the effects of SARS Cov2 on the body after the initial Covid 19 infection has resolved.

Study participants provided blood samples and nasal swabs to researchers at the time of diagnosis of Covid 19 infection and then a few months later. In this latest follow-up, patients completed a survey of symptoms associated with long-term covidium, including cough, fatigue, shortness of breath, diarrhea, memory problems, difficulty concentrating, and loss of taste and smell.

Jim HeathIn an interview with the New York Times, the lead researcher and director of the Institute for Biological Systems said that in total, approximately 37% of patients reported three or more of the long-term Covid symptoms in their last follow-up. 24% reported one or two symptoms and the remaining 39% reported no symptoms. In general, respiratory symptoms were the most common, followed by neurological symptoms, taste and smell disorders, and gastrointestinal symptoms, respectively.

Healthy told the New York Times that in people with three or more of the long-standing Covid symptoms, 95 percent showed at least one of the four newly identified risk factors. Four risk factors were associated with long-term Covid, regardless of whether the patient’s initial infection was severe or mild. The research team confirmed some of these findings by analyzing blood samples taken from an independent group of 100 patients with long-term coronary artery disease, most of whom had a mild infection at baseline.

Antibodies and respiratory symptoms

Among the most common risk factors were autoantibodies that the research team identified in patients’ blood samples. Researchers specifically examined six autoantibodies and found that different antibodies appeared to be associated with different long-term symptoms of Quid.

For example, the presence of an autoantibody called anti-alpha-alpha-2 at the time of diagnosis predicted long-term respiratory symptoms. The anti-alpha-alpha 2 antibody attaches to a chemical messenger called interferon alpha 2, whose job is to help direct the activity of specific immune cells. According to the study authors, the presence of anti-alpha-alpha-2 antibodies may disrupt the function of these immune cells and increase the production of inflammatory molecules in the body.

In addition to anti-alpha-alpha 2, the researchers screened five more autoantibodies called anti-nuclear antibodies that bind to the cell’s nuclear proteins. These five antibodies are associated with various autoimmune disorders, including lupus and rheumatoid arthritis; But it is not clear whether they directly damage the cells or are merely a sign of disease. “There is no good evidence that these antibodies are pathogenic in themselves,” he said. In the new study, anti-nuclear antibodies were associated with long-term respiratory symptoms and some gastrointestinal symptoms.

Antibodies and neurological symptoms

In contrast, long-term neural covidium was not significantly associated with the 6 antibodies measured. Instead, the neurological symptoms appeared to be related to antibodies that target the corona virus itself. These antibodies, which target the virus nucleocapsid protein, appear in high doses after infection and during the onset of long-term Qovid symptoms. Because these antibodies appear later instead of appearing around the time of diagnosis, they will not necessarily be useful for early prediction of long-term neurological symptoms. Antibody data suggest that different mechanisms may be causing different types of long-term cavitation.

Epstein-Barr virus and cognitive problems

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is another major risk factor, the researchers report. It is estimated that 90 to 95% of people get EBV before they reach adulthood. After the initial infection, the virus becomes inactive and hides in the body’s immune cells. But sometimes, if a person gets a different infection or experiences severe stress, the dormant virus can reactivate and infect them again.

According to the study, reactivated Epstein-Barr, like autoantibodies, was associated with a specific type of long-term Covid symptoms. For example, people who had EBV in their blood when diagnosed with the disease were later more likely to develop memory problems as well as fatigue and sputum production, showing a thick mixture of saliva and mucus in the lungs.

“We are usually unable to detect EBV fragments in the blood,” Yapeng Soo said. Detection of parts of the virus in the blood is a sign of their reactivation. Interestingly, EBV It often appeared in patients’s blood at the time of diagnosis of Covid 19, after which the virus’s blood levels dropped rapidly. We do not have a clear answer as to why this is the case; But as the immune system struggles to fight the coronavirus, “The EBV has a fleeting opportunity to reactivate and cause lasting damage.”

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In people who carry a specific set of genes, EBV infection can cause lupus, according to a study in the journal Frontiers. Earlier this month, scientists released compelling evidence that Epstein-Barr virus could cause depression in vulnerable people; An autoimmune disease that affects the brain and spinal cord.

the doctor Page Oates“We already know that Epstein-Barr plays an important role in lupus and now emesis,” a professor of medicine and immunology at Stanford University who did not participate in the study told LiveScience. At present, this new study suggests that EBV may also be effective in the long term. “I will not be surprised if this finding is finally confirmed.”

A small study published in the June 2021 issue of the journal Pathogenesis found that Covid 19 may arouse EBV in some patients and increase their risk of long-term Covid. Now, a new study seems to provide more evidence in this regard.

Diabetes and corona virus RNA

Approximately one-third of patients with long-term coronary artery disease in the study had type 2 diabetes. In particular, those at risk were more likely to experience fatigue, cough, and other long-term respiratory symptoms. In addition, approximately one-third of long-term Covid patients carried high levels of SARS Cov2 or RNA genetic material in their blood at the time of diagnosis and were more likely to experience memory-related symptoms.

Finding high levels of genetic material in patients’s blood suggests that long-term couvid can probably be prevented or at least reduced if antiviral drugs are controlled. “The sooner a patient can eradicate the virus, the lower the risk of developing a persistent or autoimmune virus that causes long-term covitis,” Yapengsoo said. However, Yutz notes that since long-term Quid can affect people with both mild and severe infections of Quid 19, it is unclear whether invasive antiviral therapy will help all patients.

Other risk factors

Aside from the four identified risk factors for long-term covidus, the new study also notes that people with long-term covid respiratory symptoms have abnormally low levels of the hormone cortisol (stress) in their blood. Those with neurological symptoms also had abnormally high levels of protein in their blood that were thought to reflect a disturbance in the circadian sleep / wake cycle.

These findings may indicate long-term therapies for Covid. In fact, cortisol replacement therapy is currently being tested in long-term patients, according to Yapeng Soo; But in the end, Yoots says, only through clinical trials can we find out whether these approaches work, and if so, what kind of long-term quills they affect.

It must be reiterated that the new study is only a starting point and has many limitations. “Our study focused on the long-term quid for up to three months after the start of the quid, so it cannot show which patients will develop the quid for much longer,” Yapeng Soo said. “To better understand the long attacks of Covid that last four months or more, future studies should follow Covid 19 patients for longer periods.”

In addition, scientists may need to conduct animal studies to find out why and how these identified risk factors lead to different types of long-term cavities. Future studies should also determine whether SARS Cov2 species, from alpha to omicron, alter patients’ long-term Covid experiences.


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