It seems that the tensions of the brain with the gut and the structure of its microbial inhabitants play a very important role in the development of neurodegenerative conditions. The evidence that there is a connection between the microbiota-gut-brain axis (MGBA) and Alzheimer’s disease is still growing; But scientists have not yet been able to discover the exact mechanism of this connection.
Until now, the pieces of the puzzle have been frustratingly misaligned, involving seemingly unrelated factors known as tangled proteins, located within neural tissue. These proteins make the intestinal microbes suspicious of the subtle differences in fat transporter molecules.
Science Alert He writes in his report that a team of American researchers sought to discover a more explicit relationship between Alzheimer’s disease and a combination of living organisms inside the digestive tract. This goal led them to start the largest existing study in the field of genomic communication of human gut microflora.
The researchers’ analyzes showed the existence of a genetic connection between different genera of intestinal bacteria and the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease in patients. In addition, their investigations also proved the connection between microbes and one of the genetic risk factors in the development of neurological disorders. A recent study by scientists emphasizes the mutual influence of genetic factors and intestinal inflammatory microflora in the healthy functioning of the brain.
Early in its development, our body is dominated by a collection of bacteria, fungi and viruses, which, of course, establish a tentative truce with the immune system. This situation is beneficial for both parties in most cases; Because on the one hand, microbes get a place to live, and on the other hand, our body has a front line of small passengers who have a strong desire to protect their home.
The existence of such a truce does not mean that the balance is always established in our body; Because changes in the body’s immune system can make some species superior to other species. The changes made in the composition of microbes through behaviors such as changing the diet also deeply affect the body’s function. This effect can be positive or negative.
The tug-of-war between the microbial census and the body’s overall health can play out throughout our bodies in less-than-predictable ways. This issue will eventually lead to confusion in how to identify friend and enemy distant tissues in the body.
In recent years, researchers have focused on this complex politics between the gut microflora, the immune system, and neural function to identify why certain areas of the brain atrophy, leading to symptoms of memory loss and cognitive decline. These symptoms are what we know as Alzheimer’s disease.
Observational studies show a decrease in the diversity of gut microbes in people with Alzheimer’s disease. This is while laboratory analyzes show that gut bacteria are able to release chemicals that can create destructive inflammatory signals in the brain.
The complexity of the problem is related to the gene that plays a role in the movement of a type of fat called apolipoprotein E (APOE) through the blood. Of the three versions in humans, a variant called E4 appears to be a genetic risk for Alzheimer’s disease. Why this happened is not yet clear; Although there is good reason to suspect that having at least one copy of APOE E4 can influence the composition of our body’s microbial citizens.
The recent discovery of connections between microbes, APOE E4 and Alzheimer’s provides compelling evidence of the mechanism of gut activity. By studying thousands of participants, the team carefully examined the records of 119 bacterial genera. This review is known as the MiBioGen Consortium.
In the initial research of a group of bacterial genes that can be related to Alzheimer’s disease, 20 suspected types were identified that could somehow play a role in the development of this disease. The next study, which was conducted in a more limited sample, sought to identify 10 more specific types; 6 of the identified bacterial genes were less common among patients and 4 other types were more prevalent among them.
It seems that among these 10 types of bacteria identified, four of them are associated with an allele that probably increases the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. One of the samples identified in this study is called Actinobacterium Collinsella, which, in addition to Alzheimer’s disease and APOE type, is also associated with rheumatoid arthritis, arteriosclerosis, and type 2 diabetes.
Currently, researchers suspect Collinsella’s ability to promote the expression of neurotransmitter hormones and its ability to make the gut more permeable. They believe that these abilities can play a very important role in aggravating nerve damage.
High levels of cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) found in healthy adults with high Collinsella counts suggest a link between microbes, lipid metabolism, and neurodegeneration. In recent research, protective bacterial groups were also discovered that have the ability to fight inflammation; Of course, we should know that this method is only one way to explore and there are certainly other ways.
Alzheimer’s disease is one of the most common forms of dementia in the world, which is expected to affect 150 million people worldwide by the middle of this century. This is largely due to the significant population that reaches old age every year around the world. In order to find ways to treat or even prevent Alzheimer’s symptoms, in addition to tracing the origin of this disease, we must also gain a correct understanding of its pathology at the fundamental level.
This study, in Journal of scientific reports It has been published.