Record-breaking extrasolar planet whose orbit kills it to death

A new extrasolar planet called TOI-2109b has been discovered very close to the central star of its system. This gas giant planet is 35.1 times the diameter and 5 times the mass of Jupiter. So far, so good! But the planet is so close to the host star that it orbits it every 16 hours.

This is the closest orbit ever recorded for a gas giant planet; It is so close that it gets closer to the host star with each rotation and is on the way to extinction. The temperature on the sunny side of the planet TOI-2109b reaches 3,500 degrees Kelvin (3,227 degrees Celsius), which is higher than the temperature of some stars.

It is the second highest exoplanet in terms of temperature, placing it in the category of supernovae. Astronomers hope to study the planet to learn more about how such planets formed and how a star interacts with planets in very close orbit.

Yan Wang“NASA’s Goddard Space Launch Center astronomer and senior researcher says in this discovery:

If we are lucky, in the next year or two we may be able to record the planet approaching its host star. In our lifetime, we will not see the planet fall inside the star; But if we look for it 10 million years later, it may not be there anymore.

Hot and supermoon Jupiters are attractive clusters of extrasolar planets, and as their name suggests, gas giants are like Jupiter. However, unlike Jupiter, they orbit very close to their parent star and take less than 10 days to orbit each time (compared to Jupiter, which takes about 12 Earth years to orbit each time). At such close distances, these extrasolar planets become very hot and sometimes begin to evaporate under extreme heat conditions.

According to current models of planet formation, hot customers are a mystery. Gas giant planets cannot form near their star; Because the force of gravity and intense radiation and strong solar winds prevent the condensation of gases. Nevertheless, we have found hundreds of examples of these seemingly impossible planets. Astronomers now believe that these extrasolar planets formed in orbit farther away from their host star and then migrated into the system.

Ooy Eshpurr“Astrophysicists at the MIT Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research say:

From the beginning of the knowledge of extrasolar planets, Jupiter was hot with strange things. How does a planet the mass and size of Jupiter reach an orbit that takes only a few days to complete? We do not have anything like this in our solar system, and we see this phenomenon as an opportunity to study and help explain how they exist.

To complete the puzzle of the evolution of hot Jupiter, astronomers hope to discover more of these planets at different stages of their life cycle by looking at more and more similar specimens. TOI-2109b has been the closest to death we have ever seen.

Chart of decreasing starlight in planet transitAstronomers use the changes in starlight at different intervals to find the planet in orbit.

The planet was detected using NASA’s Extrasolar Planet Hunter Space Telescope (TESS), which looks for small, regular reductions in starlight. This is one of the signs that a mass is orbiting that star.

The amount of reduction in starlight can indicate the dimensions of the object in question in the orbit. The small displacement of the star around the center of mass of the system due to the force of gravity coming from the extrasolar planet can determine the mass of the planet.

TOI-2109b orbits the yellow-white stars 1.7 times larger and 1.4 times the mass of the Sun 855 light-years away. TOI-2109b and its parent star are very close to each other and the distance between them is about 2.4 million kilometers. This is only 1.6% of the distance from the earth to the sun.

At such a close distance, the extrasolar planet is probably in gravitational lock with its host star, always only halfway to the star. This side of the planet is being examined in motion as it orbits, and its temperature reaches a staggering 3,500 degrees Kelvin; But estimating the night side of the planet (the half that is always behind the star) is a bit difficult.

“Sporer says:

The brightness of the planet overnight is less than the sensitivity of the TESS telescope, which raises unanswered questions about it. Is the temperature very cold there, or does the planet somehow transfer the heat received during the day to the night? We are at the beginning of the way to answer this question about Abrdagh customers.

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What the researchers have been able to measure is the rate at which the TOI-2109b is approaching its star. The planet’s rotation period decreases from 10 to 750 milliseconds per year. This is the fastest spiral motion rate recorded for a hot customer so far.

Researchers hope future studies with the James Webb Space Telescope will reveal some of the stresses that hot customers experience in the death spiral.

Dr. Wang says:

“Superclave clients such as the TOI-2109b are the most diverse subset of extrasolar planets.” We have just begun to understand some of the physical and chemical processes in the atmosphere of these planets; Processes that have no analogues in our solar system.

The study is published in The Astronomical Journal.

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