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New breakthrough in capacitors reduces the thickness of quantum chips up to 1000 times

Qubits are very important elements from which quantum computers derive their processing power. In fact, qubits are the quantum counterparts of bits in traditional computers, and one of the major differences between them and conventional bits is that the classical computer can be based on mode A or B (in binary terms one or zero); Quantum computers, on the other hand, can use a combination of the two thanks to their strange properties and properties.

In order for quantum computers to surpass their classic counterparts in terms of speed and capacity, their qubits, which are superconducting circuits, must be at a so-called wavelength, and achieving this will come at the cost of increasing their size. While the transistors used in classical computers have shrunk to the nanometer scale, superconducting qubits today are still measured in millimeters, and it is interesting to know that one millimeter equals one million nanometers!

In other words, conventional computers based on transistors and familiar architectures have been built for decades, and we have gained some expertise in building and developing these processing machines. On the other hand, building quantum machines means reinventing the whole idea of ​​the computer from the beginning to the present. In this way, naturally, there are many problems such as making smaller and more resistant qubits, precise control and having them enough to do really useful work.

You have probably seen quantum computers in scientific papers by now; Very giant processing machines that sometimes go beyond industrial refrigerators. In fact, much of the reason for the large size of quantum computers goes back to the qubits that are embedded in the chips of very large circuits, and as the qubits increase, these chips also become larger. So we are still a long way from small quantum devices the size of today’s electronics.

To shrink the qubits and maintain their performance, a new way will be needed to build capacitors that store energy and power the qubits. Professor Wangfong Jen, in collaboration with Raytheon BBN, has now developed a two-dimensional superconducting qubit capacitor that is much smaller than Connie’s samples. To make qubit chips, engineers previously had to use flat capacitors that arranged the required load plates together. Stacking these pages saves space; But metals used in conventional parallel capacitors interfere with the storage of qubit information.

The project team is now said to have placed an insulating layer of boron nitride between two charged plates of superconducting niobium diesel. Each of these layers is only about the size of a thick atom and is held together by van der Waals forces, a weak interaction between electrons. The team then combined its capacitors with aluminum circuits to create two-qubit chips with an area of ​​109 square microns and a thickness of only 35 nanometers, which is 1,000 times smaller than the chips produced by conventional methods.

The important point is that when the qubit chip cools to absolute zero, the qubits find the same wavelength of the current samples. The team also claims to have observed important features that indicate that the two qubits are intertwined and act as a unit; A phenomenon known as quantum coherence. Dr. Hahn, one of the main operators of the project, says that their achievement means that the quantum state of qubits can be manipulated and read through electrical pulses. Of course, it should be noted that the coherence time was short and a little over one microsecond, which shows that compared to about 10 microseconds for a typical capacitor, we are at the beginning of the use of two-dimensional materials in this area.

Researchers at the well-known MIT University have recently made progress in making capacitors, using niobium dieselnide and boron nitride to make parallel plate capacitors for qubits. The difference is that the devices studied by the MIT team provide longer coherence times and last up to 25 microseconds.

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Han and his team note that they continue to refine their manufacturing techniques and test other types of two-dimensional materials to increase cohesion times; A very important component that indicates how long qubit stores information. According to Hahn, new device designs should be able to make things even smaller by combining elements in a van der Waals stack or by placing two-dimensional materials for other parts of the circuit. Han says about this:

We now know that two-dimensional materials may be our key to building quantum computers. It’s still early days, but findings like this are prompting researchers around the world to consider new applications of two-dimensional materials. We hope to see a lot more work in this direction in the future.


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