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How do the strangest eyes in the animal kingdom see the world?

When you look at the world in a certain way, you can easily forget that not everyone has the same vision. Different beings have evolved to see the world differently and have ocular structures and configurations that are optimized for different types of existence.

Of course, there are obvious points: The vegetative pupils of vegetarians’ eyes give them a panoramic view of their surroundings, which helps to both see predators approaching and to avoid encountering obstacles while escaping. At the same time, nocturnal predators have vertical pupils to see well at night. However, there are other eyes in the world that see in a way that we may not even imagine. Here are some of the strangest springs in the animal kingdom that are truly amazing.

سپیداج

No other animal has a pupil like a spider. The pupil of this animal is shaped like a W. The W-shaped pupil may help balance the uneven vertical light field found in their usual habitat, deep water. But this is just the beginning.

Sepidaj has only one type of light receiver, which should mean that it has a monotonous vision. However, the broad pupils of the poplar and other cephalopods can allow a completely different method of color vision: the way light that passes through the prism is decomposed into a rainbow of colors.

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This phenomenon, called “color distortion,” can become problematic when the lenses inside our eyes fail to focus colors at a single point, turning obvious contrasts between colors into a smoother range of colors (by definition, color distortion). It is the mismatch of the colors of the refracted light at the site of convergence that creates a blurry image.) Speedage may have turned this problem into a solution.

The smaller the pupil, the smaller the effect, so the wide pupil of cephalopods will be more susceptible to this phenomenon. But even if this phenomenon leads to blurry images, blurring depends on the color, meaning it can be a way for these seemingly color-blind creatures to see colors. It is possible for cephalopods to see colors we do not even know about. This feature may also explain how they can harmonize themselves with the environment in terms of color for camouflage.

Unlike other cephalopods, however, poplar eyes can rotate, allowing them to see the world in three dimensions. Scientists have recently found that these rotating eyes lead to stereoscopic vision (depth vision) and give the sphincter another advantage in its surroundings.

Eye of cuttlefish

Spring

birds

Birds, with their tiny, nut-like eyes, can probably see things we can’t.

Cephalopods have only one type of light receptor. There are four types of humans: three conical and one cylindrical. That is, we have color sensitivity at three peaks of the wavelength; What we call vision is color (a cylindrical cell is too small to see in light). There are six types of birds: four types of cone cells that give them four-color vision, one type of cylindrical cell, and one type of unusual double cone cell with which they perceive motion.

In addition, a protein inside birds’ eyes can allow them to see magnetic fields. Migratory birds can navigate well, and it has not been clear for a long time how they do this. Recently, scientists have attributed the ability to orient birds to a group of proteins called cryptochromes that are sensitive to blue light.

The ability to perceive magnetic fields in birds seems to depend on blue light, suggesting that this sensation may be based on vision. Another possibility is that the magnetic filter for blue is the result of a quantum property. Recent laboratory studies have shown that the magnetic field affects the quantum properties of cryptochromes and directs their electrons.

Migratory Himalayan bluetail

Himalayan blue tail

Four-eyed fish

This amazing creature does not actually have four eyes, but two eyes have evolved and achieved incredible adaptation. Their ecological name is the surface of the water, and they spend most of their time there, hunting for insects that hang around aquatic ecosystems.

Four-eyed fish springs (Anableps anableps) Is located above their head, which helps them see insects better in the air. But part of their visual organs are below the surface of the water, and this is where the interesting thing comes in: each pupil is divided into two halves, one above the waterline (posterior) and the other below the waterline (anterior). In this way, the fish can see up and down the water simultaneously (environments in which light is diffused differently) to see both the hunter and the prey. The thickness of the lens (as well as the corneal epithelium) also varies to match the different fracture rates of the air and water environment.

The proteins in retinal light-receiving cells are also slightly different: they are more sensitive to green light in the posterior retina and yellow in the anterior retina. Because these fish often live in muddy environments such as mangrove forests, this ability may enhance their vision in murky waters.

Four-eyed fish

Strange four-eyed fish eyes

Foot mouth

Of all the eyes in the animal kingdom, the most complex are the ones we know of, belonging to a species of marine crustaceans that spend their lives in the crevices between the rocks of the seabed.

As mentioned, humans have four light receptors and birds six light receptors. But the mantis shrimp, which is from the order of the mouthpiece, has 16 light receptors. What do they do with these light receivers? They see everything. Do not play with a straight-legged mouse.

We do not know why the mouths need such a complex visual organ; Largely because it is very difficult for us to imagine what they see. They have common colored light receivers as well as ultraviolet light sensitive receivers. Of course, this feature is not unique. Some insects, birds and even reindeer can see ultraviolet light. Mouths can see five different bands of ultraviolet frequency.

In addition, the mouthpieces can see polarized light, that is, the direction of fluctuations in the wave of light emitted. Many animals, including dawns, can see linearly polarized light. But according to available knowledge, mouthparts are the only animals that can see polarized light in a circular motion. Each eye is located on a stem and can move independently. In addition, each eye has the ability to perceive depth. Humans rely on binoculars to understand depth. Mouths need only one eye to do this. They can even see the cancer before the symptoms appear.

Peacock mantis shrimp

Peacock shrimp

Cradle or Keaton

What are eyes made of? Well, usually tissue is a structure made up of cells. Of course, if you are a species of marine mollusk called a ketone that belongs to the genus Polyplacophora, you will have a different eye structure.

These relatively small creatures, while crawling on rocks and eating whatever food they find, protect their lives with thick plates of tangled armor.

You might think that such a creature has soft eyes that can use it to look around its oyster to see predators and sense the day and night cycle; But you are wrong. Of course, chitons have eyes, but their eyes are embedded in their armor and made of minerals (more precisely, a type of calcium carbonate called aragonite).

The simple eyes of chitons, which are located on the surface of their shell next to hundreds of sensory organs (aesthete), are composed of aragonite lenses covered by a cornea and a kind of retina. These rudimentary small organs can create images. What we do not know is how this visual information is processed by their brains.

Keatons can help us better understand some of the paths that evolution has taken in the past. Trilobites, for example, also had mineral springs with calcite lenses. These extinct creatures had the first very complex eyes we know of, so understanding them can help us gain more knowledge about the evolution of vision on Earth.

Cradle / Chiton

Creepy sea cradle

Chiton eyes

Keaton Eyes. The dark spots are the eyes, the smaller protrusions are the sensory organs


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