Next, the scientists moved the left and right “openings” of this so-called “wormhole” to somehow evolve the quantum system backwards in time. Then, they took one qubit as a “reference” and entangled it with another qubit as a “probe.” Thus, the number of circuit qubits reached 9. The probe qubit was then replaced with one of the qubits in the left slot; It’s almost like a particle entering one of the openings of a wormhole. With the forward evolution of the wormhole, the information carried by the probe qubit, during the process Quantum Scrambling scattered throughout the system.
In the next step, these scientists implemented a series of quantum operations at the entangled interaction level on the system. On the gravitational side of the system, this interaction is equivalent to a one-time injection negative energy (the energy of particle-free fields) is in spacetime. This event is very important; Because wormholes are inherently unstable and if something tries to pass through them, they collapse immediately. In order to be able to keep the opening of the wormhole open for a long enough time for the desired object to pass through it, it is necessary to add some kind of negative energy to it. The point is that in classical physics, there is no negative energy, but why in quantum mechanics; Especially in pairs of virtual particles that appear in the vacuum of space for a very short time and disappear almost immediately. This vacuum energy is actually the underlying mechanism of Hawking radiation.
The inability to produce enough negative energy is the reason why wormholes are science fiction
Of course, no way has yet been found to generate enough negative energy to keep a large-scale traversable wormhole open in the real world. This is why wormholes have not yet been able to go beyond the realm of science fiction.
But on the small scale of this experiment, the scientists created something like a shock wave of negative energy that was able to keep the tiny “wormhole” stable long enough for the probe qubit to pass through. The injection of positive energy also causes the opening to close. As the wormhole evolved forward, the entangled information from the passing qubit was gradually transferred to the right opening of the system.
The researchers confirmed the transfer of information by measuring the amount of entanglement between the reference qubit and the qubit that was farthest from it on the right side of the wormhole opening. In the phase of negative energy injection, there was much more entanglement than in the phase of positive energy injection, which indicates that the information was transmitted through a mechanism with physics similar to the permeable wormhole.
Super small quantum duck
Duck test is an example of logical reasoning that is very common among English speakers. The test argues that “if something looks like a duck, swims like a duck, and sounds like a duck, it’s probably a duck.”
Joseph Liken, one of the authors of the paper, uses the argument of the duck test to say that what the team members managed to create has the characteristics of a wormhole, so it can be called a wormhole.
But, well, their duck is incredibly small; According to Jeffries’ theory, a wormhole as small as an electron has 1,045 times more entanglement than the model created by the CalTech scientists. In short, the behavior of the atoms in this experiment was exactly what could be predicted by the traditional quantum mechanics of the 1920s. But the interesting thing about this experiment is that we now have a new dual model with which to describe the behavior of some specific systems.
Spiropolo says that when he first showed Susskind the test results, he told him:
Jeffries says that if Einstein were alive, he would have welcomed Spiropoulos and his colleagues’ wormhole spaceflight model for the same reason that science fiction writers love to use the wormhole trick. One of the things about entanglement that annoyed the great physicists was that information seemed to travel faster than the speed of light, violating the principle of causality. But in this experiment, because the qubit uses a wormhole shortcut, it can no longer be said that it traveled faster than light.