Dyson spheres; Extraterrestrial shelter around white dwarfs

To date, no one has discovered any evidence of intelligent extraterrestrials elsewhere in the universe; But aliens, if present, probably inhabit Dyson spheres orbiting the remnants of sun-like stars called white dwarfs throughout the solar system. According to Ben ZuckermanRetired professor of physics and astronomy at the University of Los Angeles, California, should focus our research on these spheres. Based on research, astronomers can estimate the number of advanced Milky Way civilizations.

Long live civilization

Every advanced civilization needs energy for food, transportation, war, comfort and well-being. Currently, 7.8 billion people on earth consume 580 million million joules of energy annually, which is equivalent to the energy output of nearly 14,000 million tons of oil. In fact, almost all human energy comes from fossil fuels because humans have not yet been able to use the solar system’s largest source of energy, the sun.

If man covered every square centimeter of the earth with solar panels, he would produce more than 10 to the power of 17 joules of energy per second. However, it will still lose a lot of solar energy, which reaches 10 to 26 joules per second. The above design, the main idea of ​​Dyson’s Korea, is derived from the name Freeman Dyson, Is a famous physicist. According to Dyson’s idea in 1960, if an advanced civilization wanted to use the energy output of its host star, it would have to build a superstructure to capture that energy that would block some of the star’s light and turn it into useful energy.

Dyson’s original design consists of an integrated sphere (with 100% energy coverage) which is not effective due to stability problems, as it is impossible to hold the star in the center and pull the entire sphere around it due to strong rotational and atmospheric pressures. . As a result, it is better to assume that advanced civilizations make rings or masses of massive solar panel structures to make the most of their stellar energy.

Broken start

But no matter how advanced a civilization is or how many objects it can make like Dyson’s sphere, these civilizations face the fact that every star has a limited lifespan. If a civilization were to form around ordinary sun-like stars, it would one day turn into a red giant, leaving behind a cold white dwarf. This process leads to the destruction of the planet’s inner planets, and as the white dwarf cools, the outer planets freeze.

As a result, staying on the planet’s surface is not a long-term sustainable option; So every extraterrestrial must one day pack up and look for a new system to call home, or it must build several habitat collections to pick up the remaining white dwarf rays.

White dwarf and gravity

The intense gravity of the white dwarf star has turned its neighbor into a teardrop. If extraterrestrials exist, they could live on Dyson spheres around such white dwarfs.

According to a new article written by Zuckerman and accepted for publication in the Monthly Announcements of the Royal Astronomical Society, it seems unlikely that an extraterrestrial civilization will have the trouble of traveling to new stars just to build a Dyson planet; So possible civilizations will build these superstructures around their host stars, which eventually turn into white dwarfs.

In this way, scientists can draw a direct link between the life span of a star and the prevalence of Dyson spheres. Thus, according to Zuckerman, if astronomers follow the Dyson spheres around white dwarfs and return empty-handed, they can use this result to estimate the number of possible advanced civilizations in the galaxy.

This logic works like this: Astronomers have so far examined only a small fraction of all white dwarfs in the galaxy; But if enough extraterrestrial civilizations decide to build Dyson spheres around their white dwarfs, we should at least see one Dyson sphere in observations. If we do not see any Dyson spheres, there will be a high limit on the number of extraterrestrial civilizations that build up around the white dwarfs of Dyson Sphere. Of course, there may be civilizations that do not build Dyson’s sphere at all, or civilizations that simply build these spheres around other types of stars, but Zuckerman believes that during the Milky Way, the most likely output of advanced extraterrestrial civilizations is Dyson’s construction around white dwarfs; As a result, we need to focus our search on these goals.

Consider a deeper perspective

However, searching for Dyson’s Korea will not be easy. Zuckerman writes:

If there are Dyson spheres, they are very difficult to find because of the large number of stars to be searched. The Dyson sphere’s signal is probably very faint compared to its host star.

But what is the Dyson signal? The presence of a Dyson sphere or Dyson ring around a white dwarf has two effects. If the sphere is the size of a star or close to the size of a star, it blocks the light received by the star to Earth; This effect is similar to the blocking of light by extrasolar planets; But Dyson spheres may add a signal from infrared rays. Superstructures usually absorb rays from white dwarfs and convert this energy into other things. Since no conversion is 100% optimal, this process will leave some wasted heat that escapes in the form of infrared light.

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Surprisingly, large numbers of white dwarfs have been discovered by the extra infrared emission, but this is mostly due to dust in stellar systems, not just the presence of superstructures. Current observations of white dwarfs have found no evidence of Dyson spheres. Given the total number of white dwarfs expected in the Milky Way, Zuckerman estimates that up to three percent of habitable planets orbiting sun-like planets could pave the way for the emergence of a civilization that would form the Dyson sphere around the resulting white dwarf. However, there are many planets around Sun-like stars, so it is estimated that up to 9 million Dyson spheres of civilization will be found around the white dwarf in the Milky Way. In the end, no one knows how many advanced extraterrestrial civilizations (if any) live on the Milky Way. According to Zuckerman:

Some astronomers, including myself, believe that the possibility of advanced life is very rare. In fact, we may have even the most advanced technology in the Milky Way; But no one knows, so looking for evidence is worth it.

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